Local birding

Local birding hot spots

Discover some of our favorite Collier County birding areas.

Download birding checklists

Report rare bird sightings

The other day I got an email reporting a Golden Eagle sighting in Naples and asking whether this was possible. I replied (after looking it up) that it was possible but unusual. This pointed out that we need a link to let folks know if they have a rarity and how to report it.

The Florida Ornithological Society's Records Committee is the only Florida entity that addresses rare bird sightings. Use the FOS links below to check the updated Florida Checklist and find out if the species is or is not rare. The Review List should be looked at to see if the species needs to be reported.

If sending a photo (best idea, if possible) check the photo gallery for ideas. It is not necessary to have a perfect photo but be careful how much the photo is "Photoshopped" as important information can be lost.

Do not be disappointed if the record is not accepted; I have submitted two records and both were rejected; this is all in the fun of the game.

--Ted Below

Birding news

Winter 2016 Shorebird Beach Walks & Talks with Audubon

Come join us for Beach Walks and Shorebird Identification sessions led by experts on coastal birds. Please click HERE for a flyer with dates and details.

Bird, wildlife watching has $3.1 billion/year impact on Florida economy

Bird watching and wildlife viewing are estimated to add $3.1 billion a year and 35,000 jobs to Florida. Read more at wildlifeextra.com.

Climate change affecting bird migration and ranges

Read an Audubon study on the northward shift of birds in early winter.

Birds in Decline lists pinpoint common losses

Forty years of Christmas Bird Counts plus information from the Florida Breeding Bird Atlas has identified common birds whose populations are in serious decline. Five species are spotlighted on the Florida list, or check the National list from National Audubon Society. Return to this page by using your browser's back/return button.

Birding miscellany

Learning how to bird

For Audubon tips about birding (where to look, what to look for, etc.), click here.

Audubon's Online Bird Guide

Click the button below for National Audubon's bird identification guide.

Frequently asked bird questions

How do you stop birds from flying into windows, discourage woodpeckers from hammering your house, know what to feed birds, find out where birds go during hurricanes? Find answers to these questions are more.

Identifying banded birds

Learn about bird bands, how to report banded birds, identifying unusual bands, and etching worn aluminum bands by clicking here.

Frequently Asked Bird Questions

Q: What are some possible ways to prevent bird-window strikes?

A: Thump! It's that sickening sound that can only mean another bird has flown into one of your windows. Birds cannot see glass, especially if it is reflecting the nearby habitat or sky. These reflections do not register as such to a bird. This is why millions of birds die or are injured each year in collisions with glass windows in homes and office buildings.

Here are 10 different suggestions for making your windows less deadly for birds.

10. Move your feeders. Many window-killed birds are familiar feeder birds that use our backyards every day. There are two parts to this suggestion. Move the feeders farther away from your windows or move them closer to your windows. The idea here is that you'll disrupt the birds' usual flight path to and from the feeders. Moving the feeders closer to the windows can sometimes help because birds startled off the feeders by a hawk don't build up enough speed to hurt themselves, and being closer to the window, the birds might be able to see that it is not an effective escape route. Remember that moving the feeders will do nothing to prevent nonfeeder birds, such as migrant thrushes and warblers, from hitting the glass. So here are some more general suggestions.

9. Branches. Breaking up the reflective ability of a large expanse of glass is key to making it less deadly. A natural way to do this is to suspend tree branches in front of the most-struck windows. Try to do this in a way that will give good coverage to the pane of glass but will not eliminate your view entirely.

8. Plastic food wrap. Another method for breaking up the reflection of glass is to stick large sheets of food wrap across the middle of your windows. Saran wrap and its cousin products can serve this purpose. If you have trouble getting the wrap to stick, spray a light coating of vegetable oil or water on the window before laying down the wrap. The wrap's surface does not reflect the surroundings as the glass does.

7. Spray-on fake snow/vegetable oil. If you can stand it, a light coating of either of these two products will "deaden" a window's reflective ability. Just don't overdo the fake snow or you'll be dreaming of a white Christmas and not be able to see anything out your window.

6. Commercial stickers. There are a few products available commercially that are designed to reduce or prevent window strikes. One of these is a static-adhering sticker that looks like a spiderweb; others are various designs meant to scare birds away with predator faces or with bright metallic reflective surfaces.

5. Mylar balloon/Mylar tubes. If you are willing to shell out $6.99 for a balloon at your local grocery store, make sure you get one of the long-lasting metallic-looking Mylar balloons (often featuring innocuous messages such as "It's A Boy!" or a well-known cartoon character). These shiny balloons will flap around in the breeze and spook birds from coming too close to your windows. A variation on the theme was published in Bird Watcher's Digest's November/December 1999 issue. The author suggested wrapping strips of bright Mylar around cardboard tubes (from paper towel rolls) and suspending these wrapped tubes from strings in front of your problem windows.

4. Hawk/owl/crow silhouettes. The black vinyl flying accipiter silhouettes were the conventional solution for window strikes in the 1970s and many are still in use today. I have also seen owl and crow silhouettes used for the same purpose. The idea is that these shapes of "dangerous" birds are scary enough to prevent small birds from flying toward them, but their effectiveness is debatable. In certain situations they seem to work, at least for a time. The question is, do the birds get used to them and ignore them? If you can't find these at your local bird store, trace the outline of a hawk, crow, or owl from a picture, enlarge it on a copier, cut it out and trace it onto black paper or vinyl, and stick them onto your windows.

3. Plastic strips/pie pans/ Christmas decorations/ CDs. Another method of scaring birds away from windows is to use something unusual suspended in front of the glass. The item can be shiny and reflective such as the aforementioned Mylar balloon, an aluminum pie pan, tin foil, Christmas decorations, or old compact discs (CDs). Or it can be something that flutters in the wind, such as strips from a plastic garbage bag. The message to birds is "don't fly toward this scary, moving stuff."

2. Screens or netting on the outside. The old standby solution to window strikes is to stretch some mesh netting (also known as fruit netting or crop netting) across your problem windows. This can take a bit of work, and it doesn't look great, but the benefit is that it is 100 percent effective in preventing birds from hitting your windows. Some bird watchers will tie short pieces of white flagging, rags, or yarn to the netting to alert birds to its presence. An alternative is to get some old window screens (old storm window screens or screen doors work well) and suspend them in front of the windows birds are hitting regularly.

1. Feather Guard. Perhaps my favorite reader tip of all time was featured as a "My Way" in the September/October 2001 issue of Bird Watcher's Digest. The idea is called FeatherGuard. BWD reader Stiles Thomas of New Jersey created FeatherGuard. His creation consists of bird feathers strung about 8 inches apart on fishing line. These lines of feathers are then strung vertically across regularly struck windows. Birds see the feathers and do not continue to fly into the windows. Do the birds see the feathers as evidence of predation? Do the moving feathers frighten the birds? Nobody knows for sure, but I know from experience that FeatherGuard works!

(by Bill Thompson III, Bird Watcher's Digest)

Q: A woodpecker has been hammering on the side of my house. What should I do?

A: The way it hammers and what it is hammering on will tell you a lot.

If it is using your gutters or downspouts and it is a very rapid-fire noise, the woodpecker is "drumming," which is its way of communicating its presence to other woodpeckers. It would prefer a dead limb or trunk which echoes, but if there aren't any nearby, it will settle for anything else that is noisy and reverberates. It won't do any damage other than wake you up very early in the morning, but to discourage it, try the third suggestion below.

If it is hammering on your wood siding and it is a slower, methodical pecking, it is may be looking for food, but it probably wants to excavate a nesting cavity.

In that case, according to Dr. Jerome Jackson, PhD, Professor of Ornithology at FGCU, with specialty in woodpeckers, there's not a lot you can do. He recommends three possible solutions, all of which have worked at one time or other, and all of which have failed at one time or other:

First, build or buy an appropriate sized bird house. The bird is probably a Red-bellied Woodpecker. If so, a two inch diameter hole is needed. It needs to be rough wood. Fill it full of wood shavings (hamster litter). The birds like to excavate a cavity and this substitutes for it. Then hang the bird house over the most recent spot they have been working. Often they will move in and nest there ­ since they have already selected that spot for a nest.

Second, buy a large sheet of clear plastic and hang it centered over the excavation so they can't get a foothold and may go away. However, they might go to the edge of the plastic and try again -- there's 50/50 chance.

Finally, go to a garden store and buy some bird netting, the kind of stuff that is draped over fruit trees. Tack this under the eaves of the house about 4-6 inches from the side of the house and let it hang. This usually dissuades the birds, but you may need a lot of netting. From the street it is rarely visible.

Q: Where do birds go during a hurricane?

A: Different places for different birds.

Small birds seek shelter in low heavy vegetation as much out of the wind as possible. At my house a bird feeder is right next to a large dense Fishtail Palm; during bad weather (Charlie, as an example) whenever there is a lull in the wind the House Sparrows come out of the palm and feed.

For larger birds it is different; they get in the lee of thick foliage (trying to get out of the wind). For instance at Rookery Bay there is one small cove that has compact 30' Red Mangrove on three sides and is open to the south; Brown Pelicans only use this cove in the winter when the temperature is below 50° and the wind is above 15mph (I haven't been out in hurricanes to see where they are; but usually they are around after the storms so they must go somewhere). In hurricane Andrew several flocks of White Ibis died when the mangrove they were hiding behind was blown away.

Birds are not the fragile organisms some people think they are and are able to cope with most of the usual bad weather that passes through. As an example, this diving immature Brown Pelican was photographed during a thunder squall; the wind was about 30mph and I was hiding behind one of the islands of the Marco Colony watching 10-12 pelicans feeding during the storm. During a lull in the rain I got some interesting shots.

Birds like people have different strategies for different situations; it would be interesting to hear of other ways birds deal with weather.

--Ted Below

Q: What do I do about birds building nests in an inappropriate places on my property?

A: The best advice is to stop this process as soon as it starts. Remove the nest materials by hand or with a hose, making sure not to injure any nearby wildlife. This action is only appropriate in the beginning stages of nest building. If nesting has already begun, it is against the law to injure or disturb wildlife, nests, or eggs!

Q: What other laws affect me and birds?

A: Native birds are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, with the exception of those which are legal to hunt in season with a license (doves, ducks and geese, quail, and turkey). It is otherwise illegal to kill any native birds, including hawks, crows, vultures, Blue Jays, and (regrettably) Brown-headed Cowbirds. It is also illegal to disturb their nests and eggs.

It is LEGAL to kill non-native birds such as Rock Doves (city pigeons), House Sparrows, and European Starlings. However, the means of killing them is restricted by gun laws and animal cruelty laws.

Q: How do I keep birds from flying into my windows, or pecking at shiny things on a car like chrome and side-view mirrors?

A: Usually, the birds that fly into windows are seeing a reflection of the place where they want to be, like trees, flowers, shrubs, or sky. Impede this reflection by putting things in the window sill or by hanging mylar strips just outside the window. The birds will see the moving strips and will not be tempted to fly into them.

Male birds may peck (or attack) reflections in shiny objects such as clean windows and mirrors. They are extremely territorial, especially during nesting season, and birds in general are not incredibly smart. If a male sees his reflection in a window, he will perceive it to be a rival male and will promptly attack in an attempt to drive him away. That he runs into glass, that the rival bird never leaves -- these facts have no effect on him.

The only way to stop him is to make his reflection disappear -- put a bag over the side-view mirror, park your car somewhere else out of his territory, tape some paper or plastic wrap over the window or the mirror when the car is parked (but remember to remove it before you drive off). If the bird simply moves to another window, well, maybe he'll go away when his hormones calm down in the fall.

Q: What do I do if a bird has fallen out of its nest?

A: Most are best off when you leave them alone. Over 75% of young wild birds "rescued" do not need help.

Often times parents are nearby watching over the young. Some birds leave the nest prior to their ability to fly and will spend days on the ground while being trained by their parents. Very young birds or eggs that have fallen from the nest may be returned by gently placing them back in. Birds have a very poor sense of smell and will not abandon an egg or baby handled by humans. Gently pick up the bird and place it in a box or basket. Try locating the nest and place it back in as best you can. If you cannot find the nest, leave the young bird in a box or basket and place out of reach of predators (cats, dogs) and let the parents continue to feed their young. A destroyed nest can be substituted using a box, basket or hanging planter lined on the bottom with grasses, pine straw or moss. The new nest should be observed for 4-6 hours to determine that the parents have returned to the young.

If a bird is truly abandoned or injured it must be turned over to a licensed rehabilitator for care. It is illegal to keep or care for wildlife without a permit. Contact the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission in your region for a rehabilitator in your area or call Audubon of Florida at (407) 539-5700 for referrals.

Q: What do I do if I find an injured bird?

A: The best solution is to make the animal as comfortable as possible and call your local wildlife care center for direction and/or pick up (The Conservancy of Southwest Florida 262-2263)

Q: What should I do...

A: ... if I find a sick bird and to whom do I report bird die-offs?

Q: What kind of seed is safe to feed my backyard birds?

A: Commercial "Wild Bird Seed" as sold in many stores contains much waste grain. The waste material, which may include a large number of small rocks as well as junk seed that birds don't like, makes up about 60% of the feed's bulk. So, although it's cheap, it's not much of a deal when you think of what you pay versus what birds actually eat.

Better to buy a bag of black-oil sunflower seed and a bag of white proso millet from feed stores like Sutherland's (11875 CR 951, Golden Gate), Golden Gate Nursery (14765 CR 951), or stores with a good variety of bird feed such as Lowe's. These two varieties of seed are all you really need anyway, and you probably don't need the millet. Black-oil sunflower (be sure to get the black-oil variety) is eaten by just about everything ­ American Goldfinches, Northern Cardinals, Blue Jays, Red-bellied and Downy Woodpeckers, Tufted Titmice, and House Finches among others. Doves and smaller birds such as sparrows and buntings prefer the millet. If you like doves, jays, and grackles, you will have great success with a "throw-down mix" of millet and cracked corn distributed around the shrubby edges of your yard.

The kind of feeder you choose will partially determine the birds you get. If your platform feeder is raided by grackles or starlings, try a tubular feeder, since its perches are usually too small for those birds. On the other hand, platform feeders and seed spread on the ground are more likely to bring in doves, sparrows, juncos, and buntings. The greater the variety of presentations, the greater the variety of birds.

Place your feeders where you can enjoy them, but don't place them too far away from cover. Birds don't like feeling exposed.

And most importantly, if you have a cat, KEEP IT INSIDE AT ALL TIMES!

If there are feral cats in your neighborhood, call Collier County Domestic Animal Services, 530-7387. FERAL CATS ARE THE SINGLE GREATEST DANGER TO WILDLIFE IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA! For more information about dangers caused by cats that roam loose, visit the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission page on cats.

Q: What about using suet for my backyard birds?

A: Suet, often used in colder climates, tends to go bad in Florida's warmer winters and hot summers. Here are two recipes that you might try that other backyard birders have found to be successful substitutes for suet.

  • Mix 1 cup lard (shortening can be used, but it doesn't work as well), 2 cups yellow or plain white corn meal, 1 tbsp. sugar, and 1/2 cup peanut butter. Add more corn meal as needed until the mix can be rolled into little balls. Fill a pine cone with it and hang the pine cone near the feeder, using a length of string or fishing line. Or drill one-inch holes in a fallen branch, pack the holes with the mix, and hang the branch. This will often attract non-seed-eating birds like Yellow-throated Warblers. If you have trouble with squirrels eating the mix, reduce the amount of peanut butter until they stop.
  • Mix 2 cups quick-cooking oats, 2 cups cornmeal, 1 cup flour, and 1/2 cup sugar in a large bowl. Melt 1 cup lard and 1 cup crunchy peanut butter (a microwave works nicely for this) and add to the dry ingredients. Mix well. You can pour the mixture into a square pan about 2 inches deep to make your own "suet" cakes, or just spread it directly onto a tree limb. Extra mixture can be stored in the freezer.

Q: What else should I put in my backyard to attract birds?

A: Water is an important feature of your backyard feeding station, maybe the most important (if only because it will attract such a wide variety of non-seed-eating birds). As with feeders, your water source should be near cover, be it bird bath or mister or sprinkler. Birds like moving water, so a mister or sprinkler dripping into a bird bath is especially attractive.

A useful web site is Your Florida Backyard's BIRD FEEDING PAGE.

Q: Is it safe to feed my hummingbirds nectar with red dye, as sold in most stores?

A: Current thinking is that the red dye may not be good for them. The red dye is not necessary to attract hummingbird. The color on your feeder is enough to attract them.

Q: So what should I feed my hummingbirds?

A: You can mix your own nectar. Make a sugar-water solution (add 4 cups water to 1 cup sugar, boil, and cool). Avoid honey due to the potential of botulism, and also avoid artificial sweeteners such as Nutasweet® due to the lack of nutritional value. After you fill the feeder, pour equal amounts into resealable freezer bags for future use. Use refined sugar rather than beet sugar.

Clean out the feeder thoroughly (scrub) every two to three days. If the mixture begins to ferment, it can become toxic to the hummingbirds. Also, don't place it in direct sun where it will heat up rapidly; a hot mixture will repel hummingbirds.

If you don't attract hummingbirds, it's probably because there are no natural nectar plants nearby. Plant your yard for hummingbirds, and use the feeder as a supplementary source rather than a primary source.

Q: What should I do if I see a banded bird?

A: Basic explanation of bands & how to report banded birds

Q: How can I identify what kinds of birds are in my backyard?

A: The best way is to purchase a bird identification book. Two good bird field guides are The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Eastern North America and Peterson's A Field Guide to the Birds East of the Rockies. Get a book that includes range maps. Books with illustrations tend to be better for identifying birds than books that use photographs.

Q: I'm in Southwest Florida and want to do some birding. Where are some of the better places to go?

A: Collier County is a superb birding area; it has barrier islands, sandy beaches, tidal pools and lagoons, mangrove forests, fresh water lakes, swamps with cypress forests, and pine and oak scrub forests. There are county and regional parks, state parks, national wildlife refuges, national preserves, a national park, and National Audubon Society's Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. To find some of the best birding spots, visit our LOCAL BIRDING SPOTS page.

Q: What if I'm going to another part of the state?

A: The best bet is to talk to other birders who have been there. Another good place to start is the local Audubon chapter in that area. For a list of Florida chapters, with links to those that have web sites (and many have local bird checklists too), go to the Audubon of Florida's CHAPTER PAGE. For a general idea of places to go, two good sites to check are the GREAT FLORIDA BIRDING TRAIL and WHERE TO BIRD IN FLORIDA.

These pages contain links to both public agency sites and private commercial sites. The Collier County Audubon Society does not endorse any of the sites listed nor has the material on these sites been verified for accuracy.

 All information below is from the

Bird Banding Laboratory

of the U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Contents: About Bird Bands ~ Identifying Unusual Bands ~ Etching Worn Bands



About Bird Bands

There are several different types of bands used on wild birds in North America. Each type of band is made in many different sizes so that every bird has a suitable size band available for use by banders.

Bands provided by the Bird Banding Laboratory are made of aluminum and inscribed CALL 1-800-327 BAND and WRITE BIRD BAND LAUREL MD 20708 USA followed by a unique 8 or 9 digit number. The older bird bands had the legend AVISE BIRD BAND WASH DC. These bands are from the same agency as the new bands and can be reported on the 1-800 telephone number or to Laurel MD.

There are 23 standard size bands and 5 specially sized bands made to accommodate the smallest hummingbird to the large Trumpeter Swan. In addition there are 4 common types of bands which include the standard butt-end band, the lock-on bands used on hawks and owls, rivet bands used on eagles, and hard metal bands for use on birds that would otherwise outlive their bands or are in harsh environments like salt water that may wear the regular bands too quickly.

Bands do wear out eventually, but even a very worn band with the numbers seemingly invisible can have the numbers determined using etching. To learn more about etching bands, see below. Hundreds of bands are etched and returned to hunters by the Bird Banding Laboratory every year.

Butt-end Bands

The most common type of band used in North America is the butt-end band (photo above, front row and 2nd and 4th bands, back row). This band is a round band with two edges that butt evenly together when closed correctly. Butt-end bands are supplied by the Bird Banding Laboratory to licensed US banders free of charge. Bands made of a harder metal, typically stainless steel, monel or incoloy, are used on birds that live for many years or live in salt water environments. Some sizes of hard metal bands are available to banders now, but most must be purchased at the banders expense.

Lock-on and Rivet Bands

Lock-on and Rivet bands are specifically designed to stop birds with strong bills like hawks and owls from opening or damaging the band with their strong bill.

The lock-on band (photo above,back row 3rd band) is used on all medium to large birds of prey other than eagles. The band is like a normal butt-end band with two flanges of metal. The longer flange is folded over the shorter flange, effectively "locking" the band in place. The band is made of relatively soft aluminum and can be removed by the bander, but not by the bird.

Rivet bands (photo above,back row 1st band) are made of harder metal than the lock-on band (but not stainless steel) and are used on eagles. The band has two short flanges of metal that project out from the seam where the two ends of the band meet. These flanges are side by side when the band is closed with a hole for a rivet. The band is riveted in place.

Other bands are sometimes seen on birds. Some of these can be reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory, but most cannot. To learn more about other types of bands, read on.

Identifying Unusual Bands

Most of the bands found on birds other than federal metal bands and auxiliary markers (includes goose neck bands and colored leg bands) should not be reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The exception are bands from foreign banding schemes. Federal and other bands are listed here with a general indication of where they can be reported.

Federal Bands

Federal bands issued in the USA and Canada have 8 or 9 numbers with a legend indicating WRITE BIRD BAND LAUREL MD 20708 or AVISE BIRD BAND WASH DC. Avise loosely means advise in several languages. Some bands used in recent years may have the 1-800-327-BAND legend as well, especially larger bands. These bands are always metal but may be aluminum or harder metal. Color bands are used as auxiliary markers by some banders with the permission of the respective banding office.

Colored leg Bands

Colored leg bands for small birds are made of plastic and come in a variety of colors that give unique combinations because of their placement on the bird. Colored bands are sometimes placed on the upper leg as well as the lower leg. The exact placement of the bands (above or below the "knee", left or right leg), colors of bands, and location of the metal Service band are all important in identifying color banded birds. Some birds, notably shorebirds, may have flags and color bands mixed together on the same bird. A flag is a leg band with tabs that extend away from the leg. This flag identifies the country of banding for shorebirds under the Pan American Shorebird Program.

How to Report a Sighting of a Color Marked Bird

The more information that you can provide, the more likely the individual bird or marking project can be identified. Important information to send is:

    • Size, shape, color of marker, color of codes, shape and placement of codes on the marker (a sketch can be more useful than a written description).
    • Age of the bird, sex of the bird if available
    • Date the bird was observed
    • Exact location the bird was observed
    • Your name, address, and preferably a daytime telephone number in case we have a question.

Report your sighting on the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center report page, or call your report in to 1-800-327-BAND (please do not use this number if you have live Canada Goose observations or several birds to report!), or FAX it to 301-497-5717 (use this for shorebirds, peregrine sightings etc. where the position of the flags or codes may be easier to draw than to describe on the telephone!); or email to BBL@usgs.gov.

Specialty Bands

Some specialty bands have a letter followed by 5 numbers. These bands are federal bands of special types, either triangular bands used on murres or tiny bands used on hummingbirds. These bands should be reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory.

Foreign Bands

Many foreign countries also have bird banding programs. Foreign countries often use letters as well as numbers in their bands. The bands all have a foreign address on them. Bands from other governments found in North America should be reported to the US Bird Banding Laboratory at 1-800-327-BAND. Be sure to state that the band has the address of a foreign banding scheme, and give the address or name of the scheme as it appears on the band! Each year, bands from Russia and Japan are found in western North America. Banded Peregrine Falcons and Canada Geese from Greenland wearing Danish bands can be found in eastern North America. Bands from Brazil are reported from eastern North America on terns and shorebirds.

Pigeon Bands

Pigeon bands are plastic covered aluminum, usually colored plastic. Characters on pigeon bands are typically 2-4 letters, followed by a recent year (2001or 01, etc.) and a 4-5 digit number. No other bands are plastic covered metal. Pigeon bands should NOT be reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. Contact local pigeon clubs to find contact addresses for pigeons in your area.

Falconry Bands

Two types of bands are used on falcons kept legally for falconry. For wild caught birds, plastic flexible bands similar to cable ties are used. The codes are R sometimes with another letter followed by 5-6 numbers in the US, and C sometimes with another letter followed by 5-6 numbers in Canada. Birds of prey that are bred in captivity wear a solid seamless band with similar codes to the cable tie bands. Report these bands to your state department of natural resources permits section in the US, not the Bird Banding Laboratory. (Find State Natural Resources Departments)

State and Provincial Bands

These bands are used on Gallinaceous (chicken-like) birds (Quail, Grouse, Pheasant, and Turkey) by state and provincial agencies. Gallinaceous birds do not fall under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and are not banded with federal Service bands. You may occasionally find a federal band on one of these birds, but this is not current practice. Federal bands may, of course, be reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory.

State and Provincial bands usually have the name of the Agency stamped on them. The codes are usually a single letter followed by 5-6 numbers or all numbers. These bands should be reported to the issuing Agency. You may have to request the upland game biologist in your state or provincial natural resources department to report the band. Personnel that answer the general phone numbers are generally unaware of the differences between federal and state bands and try to refer all calls to the Bird Banding Laboratory which is not appropriate in this case. (Find State Natural Resources Departments)

Private Bands

Private bands usually have an address to report the band. Any band placed on a wild or captive raised bird that is intentionally released in the United States is illegal. Only federal bands (and state bands on gallinaceous birds) may be used on birds covered by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The Bird Banding Laboratory does not take reports of these bands.

Jack Miner bands are private bands used on Canada Geese in Ontario. They contain a biblical quote and a number. Jack Miner bands, like all private bands, should be reported to the address on the band.

Cage Bird Bands

Cage birds often wear bands. If these bands are solid, seamless bands they indicate that the bird is captive bred. Parrots that go through US quarantine wear a metal importation band made of heavy wire. Each type of cage bird (parakeet, cockatiel, finch, etc) has at least one group that issues bands to members for their use. Some regional bird clubs also issue bands to their members. These bands are metal with either the organization or breeders initials, a two-digit year, and a number. Check with local bird breeders or pet shops for information on cage bird bands. The Bird Banding Laboratory does not take reports of these bands.

Etching Worn Bands

Most bands are made of an aluminum alloy. The numbers are stamped into the band and can wear off with time. The average band on a Mallard wears one number off in 8-10 years. A band on a Redhead is often worn completely (no numbers legible) in this same 8-10 years. Band wear depends greatly on the amount of time a bird spends in the water, particularly salt water.

If you find a bird band with one or more numbers worn off (or if the band number is struck with shot) mail it to the Bird Banding Laboratory to be etched. The number can be retrieved successfully in most cases. Bands are etched using a strong acid solution. The band metal in areas where the number was stamped is weaker and the strong acid solution erodes away more metal where there were numbers, so the actual number is seen when the band is rinsed. The band will be returned to you when the number has been determined if you request it be returned.

To send a band to the Bird Banding Laboratory, tape the band between two pieces of cardboard, wrap the band in padding, or place it in a small box if you want to keep it round. This is very important, as otherwise the band may cut the envelope and be lost in the postal system. Send the band with all the information on how, when, and where you found the band with your address to Bird Banding Laboratory, 12100 Beech Forest Lane, Laurel MD 20708 Attention: Band to Be Etched. If you include a request to return the band, it will be mailed back to you whether we are successful in retrieving a number or not.